CIDER VINEGAR

Raw cider vinegar is full of enzymes, vitamins, probiotics and minerals that pasteurised cider vinegars do not have, as they are destroyed by the heating process. All the healing benefits you have read about with cider vinegar are absent from processed products. If you have ever tried to buy it you will know that it is expensive compared to the heavily processed kind you get in the supermarket. Luckily, it is really easy to make!

 

  1. Take a large, wide necked jar. Sterilise it.
  2. Wash and chop your apples including the cores and peel (you can make this recipe just using the cores and peel after making an apple pie!), but remove the stalks. A mixture of different varieties makes a better tasting cider vinegar, but don’t worry if you can’t manage this.
  3. Put them in the jar, making sure it is half to three quarters filled.
  4. Cover them with water that has been boiled and cooled to lukewarm.
  5. Stir in a little sugar or honey to help the fermentation process.
  1. Cover the jar. When making wine, we use an airlock to keep out the bacteria that will cause it to turn to vinegar, but when making vinegar we actually want to encourage them, so instead the jar is just covered with cheesecloth secured with an elastic band.
  2. Stir daily for a week. It will begin to bubble and ferment from the natural yeasts in the apples, and you will be able to smell this happening.
  3. Strain out the apple pulp
  4. Return the liquid to the jar and cover again with cheesecloth. Leave in a warm, dark place for 4-6 weeks, stirring occasionally. The alcohol will transform into acetic acid or vinegar. A small amount of sediment will fall to the bottom, and what is called a ‘mother culture’ of dark foam will form on top – don’t worry about this, it is normal.
  5. Taste it to determine if it is ready starting after 4 weeks as it will get stronger the longer you leave it, and you can choose how you like it.
  6. Strain once more in clean glass jars or bottles. Store out of direct sunlight. Don’t worry if another mother culture forms on top, it isn’t going bad. Just strain again.

© Anna Franklin, from The Hearth Witch’s Compendium published by Llewellyn, 2017

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Cider Vinegar

Raw cider vinegar is full of enzymes, vitamins, probiotics and minerals that pasteurised cider vinegars do not have, as they are destroyed by the heating process. All the healing benefits you have read about with cider vinegar are absent from processed products. If you have ever tried to buy it you will know that it is expensive compared to the heavily processed kind you get in the supermarket. Luckily, it is really easy to make!

  1. Take a large, wide necked jar. Sterilise it.
  2. Wash and chop your apples including the cores and peel (you can make this recipe just using the cores and peel after making an apple pie!), but remove the stalks. A mixture of different varieties makes a better tasting cider vinegar, but don’t worry if you can’t manage this.
  3. Put them in the jar, making sure it is half to three quarters filled.
  4. Cover them with water that has been boiled and cooled to lukewarm.
  5. Stir in a little sugar or honey to help the fermentation process.
  6. Cover the jar. When making wine, we use an airlock to keep out the bacteria that will cause it to turn to vinegar, but when making vinegar we actually want to encourage them, so instead the jar is just covered with cheesecloth secured with an elastic band.
  7. Stir daily for a week. It will begin to bubble and ferment from the natural yeasts in the apples, and you will be able to smell this happening.
  8. Strain out the apple pulp
  9. Return the liquid to the jar and cover again with cheesecloth. Leave in a warm, dark place for 4-6 weeks, stirring occasionally. The alcohol will transform into acetic acid or vinegar. A small amount of sediment will fall to the bottom, and what is called a ‘mother culture’ of foam will form on top – don’t worry about this, it is normal.
  10. Taste it to determine if it is ready starting after 4 weeks as it will get stronger the longer you leave it, and you can choose how you like it.
  11. Strain once more in clean glass jars or bottles. Store out of direct sunlight. Don’t worry if another mother culture forms on top or a white jelly-like scoby, it isn’t going bad.

© Anna Franklin, from The Hearth Witch’s Compendium published by Llewellyn, 2017

ARE YOUR PAINKILLERS MAKING YOUR PAIN WORSE?

Is this scenario familiar? You are in pain, so you go to your GP and he or she gives you a prescription for painkillers. They help but a few weeks later the pain feels worse again, so you go back and get a stronger dose. A while later, the pain is bad again…a year or two down the line, and you are on a lot of different painkilling medications and still in pain – in fact the pain is worse than ever and it seems that your condition is deteriorating. That may indeed be the case in some instances, but ironically, in others, the increased pain may actually be CAUSED by your painkilling medicine.

Opiate (derived from opium poppies) or opioid (synthetic opiates) painkillers include codeine, co-codamol, morphine, dihydrocodeine, tramadol and fentanyl, and they are really effective for no more than a month or two; after that you develop a tolerance to them and to achieve the same effect, the dose has to be increased. And then increased again… Sufferers understandably believe they need stronger painkillers in ever stronger doses because they are getting worse.

Taking opiate painkillers actually increases your sensitivity to pain and decreases your natural ability to tolerate pain. The body stops producing endorphins (the body’s natural painkillers) because it is receiving opiates instead. The brain increases the number of receptors for the drug, and the nerve cells in the brain cease to function normally. According to Roger Knaggs, associate professor of pharmacy at Nottingham University and a council member of the British Pain Society, opioids ‘up-regulate’ the body’s pain system so our natural painkilling chemicals, such as endorphins, become less sensitive and effective. He says “Patients affected by opioids in this way will often complain that the nature of their pain has changed or it has spread to other areas, but, in fact, this could be caused by their drugs”.

Separate from their pain-blocking interaction with receptors in the brain, opioids seem to reshape the nervous system to amplify pain signals, even after the original illness or injury subsides. A new study in rats demonstrated that an opioid sets off a chain of immune signals in the spinal cord that amplifies pain rather than dulling it, even after the drug leaves the body. The experiment induced neuropathic pain (the kind that might be experienced from traumatic nerve injury, stroke or nerve damage caused by diabetes) by loosely constricting the sciatic nerve in the thighs of rats. The rats received morphine or a saline control for five days via injections under the skin. As expected, the neuropathic pain due to sciatic nerve constriction continued for another four weeks in the rats that had received the saline, but for the rats that had received morphine, the neuropathic pain continued for 10 weeks – the five-day morphine treatment more than doubled the duration of neuropathic pain. A separate experiment in the same study showed that morphine also worsened neuropathic pain, an effect that lasted for more than a month after morphine treatment had ended.

It used to be thought that pain signalling was a dialogue between nerves, but it has now been shown that it involves glial cells, which provide nutritional support for nerves and clear away metabolic waste. Glia recognize chemical signals from nerves and respond by releasing chemical immune signals that influence communication between nerves. With abnormal pain signalling from nerves, glia respond by turning up the volume in spinal cord pain pathways. This results in the adaptations of painful sensations being exaggerated. Opioids are also a chemical signal for glia. In the study, when morphine was administered in the presence of neuropathic pain, the glial cells went into overdrive. The glia released more immune signals, keeping the ‘pain volume’ turned up higher and for longer.  After morphine, the researchers found, those pain-activated glial cells became more sensitive to the next pain stimuli. As the researchers put it, “Opioids exaggerate pain.”

Sometimes people are surprised to discover that when they stop taking opioid medicines, their pain goes away or at least is substantially reduced. Many GPs and therapists have encountered the sheer panic, distress and numerous justifications for continuance from patients when it is suggested that their pain medication is not helping and should be stopped or reduced. This is partly because the patient naturally fears the pain will get worse, but mostly because they are now physically and emotionally addicted to the painkiller.  Even the lower dose 8mg codeine or 8/500 co-codamol available to buy from pharmacies can become addictive after just three days of use.

No one should just stop taking opioid painkillers but must work out a scheduled withdrawal programme under the supervision of their GP. The degeneration of the nerve cells in the brain causes a physical dependency on an external supply of opiates, so reducing or stopping intake of the drug causes a painful series of physical changes called the withdrawal syndrome. ‘Going cold turkey’ is associated with intense withdrawal symptoms which can be prolonged, characterized by severe discomfort, including diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramping, vomiting, runny nose, eye tearing, yawning, sweating, agitation, restlessness, twitching and tremors, back and bone pain, and intense craving for the drug. The patient takes the pills and feels better, so assumes that the medication is working, when it is only staving off withdrawal.

The use of opioids has serious side effects. Opioids affect the area of the brain responsible for respiration and some can depress the rate of breathing, occasionally leading to accidental death. Other side-effects include constipation and drowsiness, impairment of the immune system making people more prone to infections and an increased risk of heart disease. They also reduce levels of oestrogen and testosterone.

Opiate/opioid painkillers have an important place in medicine, but where they were once only prescribed short term after trauma injury or as palliative care for people dying of cancer, in recent years they have been increasingly prescribed for long term conditions such as back pain, arthritis, fibromyalgia and endometriosis. So why are GPs writing out more opioid prescriptions than ever? The trouble is that when a patient presents with pain, the hard pressed GP has few options. There is no time in a 10 minute consultation to talk to patients about lifestyle choices such as exercise, diet, physical therapies, giving up smoking or losing weight, which can all affect pain, and little option in today’s cash-strapped NHS to send people to physiotherapists or pain clinics, so the GP has to reach for the prescription pad. Now they have been advised not to prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs to some patients because of concerns about a higher risk of gastric bleeding and heart attacks, or paracetamol, which is associated with an increased risk of gastric bleeding, cardiovascular disease and impaired kidney function, they are left wondering what they can do for patients for long-term pain.

In the USA, the latest CDC guidelines state that opioids should be avoided if possible, with the exception of cancer pain and end-of-life palliative care.

REFERENCES

https://www.spine-health.com/treatment/pain-medication/pain-killer-addiction-treatment
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/05/why-taking-morphine-oxycodone-can-sometimes-make-pain-worse
Morphine paradoxically prolongs neuropathic pain in rats by amplifying spinal NLRP3 inflammasome activation http://www.pnas.org/content/113/24/E3441
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3470091/Opioid-painkillers-make-chronic-pain-worse-Endorphins-effective-make-people-sensitive.html#ixzz4pjVcntKH
http://theconversation.com/do-opioids-make-pain-worse-60587

Natural Skin Care Workshop Fun

I love running workshops and showing people how they can use herbs not only for healing, but also in their daily lives for beauty products, personal care and around the house in various ways. Most participants are amazed at how cheap and easy it is to make their own products

We had a brilliant time at my Herbs for Personal Care and Beauty Day Workshop on Saturday, got the giggles trying face masks, whipped up batches of products, and everyone went away with a box full of goodies they had made including shampoos, hair rinses, bath bags, toothpaste, tooth powders, deodorant powders, skin toners and two types of face creams. All natural and chemical free, all organic, all vegan and made for pennies.

Rose Petal, Frankincense & Myrrh Night Cream

I love making creams. There is a kind of alchemy to it, when the oil and water emulsify and change into a creamy texture. The basic method is to prepare the oil part and the liquid part separately, before bringing them together. Most creams use a combination of pouring oils, such as grapeseed or almond, and more solid oils, such as coconut or shea butter. This is warmed separately to the ‘water’ part, which is warmed in a separate pan.  The water part is then dripped into the oil part very slowly, whisking constantly with an electric whisk until they are fully combined and emulsified. It is tricky, and the secret is to make sure that your oil mix and your water mix are the same temperature.

 10g beeswax

12 g cocoa butter or shea butter

50 ml rose petal infused oil [1]

15 ml benzoin tincture

30 ml rose petal infusion [2]

5 g emulsifying wax

10 drops frankincense essential oil

10 drops myrrh essential oil

Heat the beeswax, cocoa butter, emulsifying wax and rose infused oil together in a bain marie.(A bain marie is a double boiler. You can alternatively use a heat proof bowl over a pan of water.)

In a separate bain marie gently heat the rose infusion with the tincture but do not allow to boil.

Check both mixtures are the same temperature. Gradually and very slowly, pour the infusion/tincture mix into the oil bowl, whisking quickly with an electric whisk until thoroughly combined. This will create a creamy consistency. (If you have ever made mayonnaise it is a similar process.)

When the cream has cooled, you can whisk in the essential oil.

Spoon into sterilised jars, label and date. Will keep up to four months in the fridge.

[1] Pack fresh rose petals into a clear glass jar, cover with vegetable oil and leave on a sunny windowsill for two weeks. Strain the rose oil into a clean jar.

[2] Pour a cup of boiling water over fresh rose petals, leave to infuse for 15 minutes and strain off the liquid – this is your rose petal infusion.

SENSATIONAL SAGE

Sage is a hardy, aromatic, evergreen shrub that grows to a height of 1-3 ft. The common sage is a native of the Mediterranean. It likes a position in full sun and light, well-drained soil. Plants should be cut back after flowering. For drying purposes the leaves should be harvested just before the plant flowers. They should be dried slowly to avoid mould forming and then crumbled and stored in an airtight container.

Cooks use the leaves and stems with meats, in stews and soups, with cheese, pasta, in herb butter and in stuffings.  Make a sage honey by infusing the leaves in gently warmed honey – this is good for coughs, and can be used to dress desserts. The plant also is brewed to make tea.  Sage leaves and flowers can be frozen in ice cubes and added to summer drinks.

Add the fresh leaves to the bath for an invigorating wash. It is a natural disinfectant and deodoriser. Used as a rinse, an infusion of sage leaves benefits the hair and darkens greying hair. Sage can be made into a cleansing lotion or used in an astringent facial steam it will tighten the pores.

Sage is used for coughs and colds, or use the infusion as a gargle for sore throats, tonsillitis, and as a mouthwash for inflamed gums and mouth ulcers. Sage tea helps menopausal women with hot flushes, night sweats and other menopausal symptoms – sip the tea during the day. An infusion of the leaves is useful for the treatment of diarrhoea, depression, rheumatism, anaemia, menstrual problems, and migraine, for lowering fevers, and indigestion.  It also helps improve the memory and reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol. Externally it can be used as a wash for acne, eczema, wounds, scabs, insect bites and stings. Sage is antiseptic. The fresh leaves can be rubbed on stings or bites.

Making Cold Infused Oils

Fats and oils extract the oily and resinous properties of a herb, and these are often the antibacterial, antifungal and wound-healing components we really want.

Choose your leaves or flowers. Don’t wash them before use – not only will this destroy some of their delicate oils, but as soon as you introduce water into the mixture, you are setting it up to develop mould. (One of my friends was complaining that his nettle oil had an unpleasant odour, which it really shouldn’t, nettle has a fresh, rather lovely scent as an oil. I discovered that he had been rinsing the herbs before packing them in the jar.) To avoid this, make sure you pick your herbs on a dry, sunny day, and pick them from an unpolluted location

To make your cold infused oil, take your fresh herbs, cut them up, pack them tightly into  a glass jar, and cover with vegetable oil (olive, sunflower etc.). Leave on a sunny windowsill for 2 weeks, shaking daily. Strain into a clean, dry jar, label and keep in a cool, dark place for up to a year.

Infused herbal oils may be used as they are or thickened into salves with beeswax. Unlike essential oils, they do not need to be diluted for use.