As the Midsummer the sun reaches the point of greatest light, it imbues herbs with powerful magical and healing properties. This is the most potent time for gathering herbs, especially sun-coloured flowers such as St. John’s wort. Other plants acquire strange properties; an elder cut on Midsummer Eve, for example, will bleed real blood, or fern seeds can confer the gift of invisibility if gathered at midnight. Anything round and rayed suggests the sun itself, including the rose and daisy.
A belief in the magical powers of herbs at Midsummer was common throughout Europe and the Middle East. At one time plants were hung up all over on St. John’s Eve. In 1598 the historian John Stow wrote of the sight in London:
‘Every man’s door was shaded with green birch, fennel, St. John’s wort, orpin, white lilies, and the like, ornamented with garlands of beautiful flowers. They…had also lamps of glass with oil burning in them all night; and some of them hung out branches of iron, curiously wrought, containing hundreds of lamps lighted at once, which made a splendid appearance.’
This is a fertile time of year when flowers bloom in abundance. In the Western Mystery Tradition it is counted as the time when the opening flower is fertilized, when the God impregnates the Goddess. For the Welsh it was sacred to the goddess Blodeuwedd, the Flower Bride, created by magic from nine types of flowers to marry the god Lleu Llaw Gyffes. The Celts made floral sacrifices at Midsummer. Well into the nineteenth century the custom was carried on in Britain by placing flowers on the largest stone on the farm. Protective plants were hung above the door and cattle stalls, including St. John’s wort, rue, orpine, trefoil, rowan and red thread, vervain and fennel.
The following herbs all take on special meaning at the summer solstice:
ANGELICA Angelica sp.
Angelica is a member of the parsley family and is probably a native of Europe. There are about thirty varieties. Angelica is invested with the power of the sun and light, the ability to cast off darkness and negativity. Use in incenses for Midsummer to celebrate the healing power of fire and the sun to overcome winter, decay and negativity. It was used in mediaeval Europe to deter evil spirits, especially at Midsummer when they were thought to roam freely.
ASH Fraxinus sp.
Ash trees attract lightening in the summer months, the fertilizing power of the Sky God, darting from the heavens to be transmitted to the belly of Mother Earth through the agency of the tree. This makes it a World Tree, linking all the planes of existence. The ash is a tree of the sun, and the bark and leaves can be used in sun incenses or to purify the aura and infuse it with the vitalizing, healing energy of the sun. At one time people ate ash buds at the summer solstice to protect themselves from enchantment.
BAY Laurus nobilis
The sweet bay is an evergreen tree naturalized around the Mediterranean. Bay is used in incenses or offerings to invoke sun gods and goddesses, and gods and goddesses of the dawn. As a herb of protection, bay has the power of banishing negativity and darkness.
BIRCH Betula sp.
The European birch tree has a bright, white bark and is associated with the sun. Birch bark may be added to incenses of purification and protection, and incenses celebrating the passage of the sun. In country ritual leafy branches of birch were used at Midsummer to bedeck houses and even signposts throughout the villages. It forms the May and Midsummer maypole, sometimes called ‘the summer tree’.
CEDAR Cedrus sp.
True cedars belong to the genus Cedrus, and are native to mountainous areas of North Africa and Asia. The fragrant wood has been used in incenses for millennia. It drives away ghosts and evil spirits and dispels negativity. It is associated with eternity and preservation from decay and corruption. It represents the continuation of the soul.
CHAMOMILE Anthemis nobilis, Matricaria chamomilla
Chamomiles are native to Europe, North Africa and temperate Asia. They are sacred to the sun and sun gods including the Egyptian Ra and the Norse Baldur. Chamomile connects with the sun god’s power of healing, regeneration and protection. It may be used in incenses with these intentions or added to herbal talismans to boost them with the sun god’s power. Chamomile is one of the sacred herbs of Midsummer and may be used in the incense, or simply thrown onto the festival fire as an offering.
DAISY (ENGLISH) Bellis perennis‘
The daisy is a hardy perennial that is native to Europe and Asia. Its central yellow boss with white petals arrayed around it was thought to resemble the sun. It is sacred to sun gods and goddesses and is associated with purity, innocence and faithful love. The daisy is sacred to the Baltic sun goddess Saule. Daisies picked between noon and one o’clock on Midsummer Day have special magical qualities. They bring success in any venture when they are dried and carried. The English name ‘daisy’ comes from the Anglo-Saxon daeges eage meaning ‘day’s eye’, and refers to the flower opening its petals during daylight hours and closing them at night.
DILL Anethum graveolens
Dill is an aromatic, upright, annual herb native to the eastern Mediterranean, India, Iran, Russia and western Asia. It was known as one of the St. John’s Eve herbs and was valued as a protection against witchcraft.
ELDER Sambucus nigra
Elder is the name of a group of thirty species of small trees that grow in temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. It is said that where the elder grows, the Goddess is not far away. The elder has several stations throughout the year and its character changes at each. The sweet blossom can be collected in June and make a good fixative for herbal incenses. The leaves should be gathered on Midsummer morning to add to healing incense. Add the blossom to Midsummer incense, and incense to invoke dryads and fairies.
Fennel was held in high esteem by the Romans and was one of the nine sacred herbs of the Anglo-Saxons. During the Middle Ages fennel was hung over the door on Midsummer’s Eve as it was believed to keep away evil spirits. It is one of the sacred aromatic herbs of Midsummer used as incense or thrown on the bonfire. It has a long association with the sun and fire. In Greek mythology the titan Prometheus used a hollow fennel stem to steal fire from the sun and bring it to humankind. Greek islanders still carry lighted coals around in the pith of giant fennel.
Fern is the common name for any spore-producing plant of the phylum Polypodiophyta. It is associated with sun gods and goddesses, and gods and goddesses of the dawn, such as Daphne. It is also sacred to the Great Goddess and the sky gods of thunder, lightning and Midsummer. At the turning of Midsummer and Midwinter it allows access into the Otherworld and contact with its inhabitants. It was sacred to the Baltic sun goddess Saule who appeared on the horizon at Midsummer, wreathed in apple blossom and red fern blossom (i.e. red clouds). Use fern in incenses at Midsummer to protect the household and for divination purposes. Known as the ‘treasure fist’ or ‘death flower’ it was popularly thought to only bloom and produce seed on Midsummer Eve, when the seeds can be collected to make the bearer invisible, help him find wealth or give him magical powers, though he will have to battle the evil spirits that protect them. In Finland the seeds were thought to be gathered by trolls who would snatch them away from any human collector and make him go insane. In Britain the seeds could only be gathered on pewter plates, since they would pass through any other material, though in Lancashire it was held that fern seed collected on the family bible conveyed invisibility. In the far north, where there is barely any darkness at the summer solstice, the seeds are said to glow like embers, and their appearance to be announced by a peal of thunder. In a German story, a hunter is said to have procured fern seed by shooting at the sun at noon on Midsummer’s Day. Three drops of blood fell down, and these were the fern seed. The blood is clearly the blood of the sun from which the fern seed is directly derived.
FLAX Linaceae. Sp.
The flax family is a member of the order Linales, the most ancient class of flowering plants native to almost all tropical and temperate regions. Flax thread is intimately connected to the life maze and to the web of life. Flax may be used in incense to consecrate the ritual wheel or sun/moon disc or zodiac symbol. Flax may be thrown onto the fire at Midsummer. The Lapps offered flax on the altars of the sun goddess as many sun deities are associated with spinning, whether spinning the cosmos itself or with spinning sunbeams.
GORSE Ulex eurpaeus
Furze, or gorse, is native to Europe and is widely cultivated. It was burned at Midsummer and blazing branches of gorse were carried round the herd to bring health to the cows and good luck for the rest of the year. In some parts of the British Isles the Midsummer fire was lit with a branch of furze.
HAZEL Corylus avellana
Hazel is the common name applied to trees and shrubs of the genus Corylus, found throughout the temperate regions of North America and Eurasia. A branch of hazel cut on Midsummer Eve will guide you to hidden treasure. It must be cut at night by walking backwards with both hands between your legs.
HEATHER Calluna vulgaris
Heather is an evergreen shrub belonging to the family Ericaceae found throughout Western Europe and in parts of North America. It is sacred to the goddess of Midsummer, who was often designated as queen bee, as bees love to drink from heather flowers. Cybele is the queen bee for whom her priests castrate themselves to become her drones. The honeybee, which orientates itself on its journey from the heather to the hive in relation to the position and angle to the sun, was regarded by the Celts as a messenger travelling the path of the sunlight to the spirit world. In legend Cybele imprisoned Attis in heather at Midsummer.
HONEYSUCKLE Lonicera caprifolium
The family Caprifoliaceae contains about four hundred species and occurs mainly in the Northern Temperate Zone. Add the flowers to Midsummer incenses.
LAVENDER Lavendula officinalis
Lavender is the name given to twenty-eight species of the genus Lavandula native to the Mediterranean region. Lavender purifies, heals and cleanses. Add to incense for calm meditation and to bring peace and harmony in the home, or at difficult discussions and meetings. Add to the Midsummer incense.
MALLOW Malva sylvestris
In Ireland the young people gathered sprigs of mallow on Midsummer Eve. It was considered to be a protection from some of the more dangerous spirits at large on this night. They would then touch their relatives and friends with the leaves, before throwing the leaves onto the bonfire.
MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis
Marigold is a hardy, annual herb native to central and southern Europe and Asia. Use it in incense dedicated to the sun, the element of fire, the star sign of Leo and to invoke sun gods. Marigold is a herb of healing and protection, and can also be added to incenses for prophetic dreams, love, divination and used to consecrate divinatory tools such as crystal balls. The name of this plant comes from the Latin calends or kalendae, the word for the first day of each month and the origin of our ‘calendar’. In ancient Rome the calendula was said to be in bloom on each calend throughout the year. The specific name officinalis shows that it was included on the official list of herbal medicines. In ancient Egypt it was used as a rejuvenating herb, while the Persians and Greeks used it for cooking, and the Hindus to decorate their altars and temples. At Midsummer garlands of marigold flowers hung on doors prevent evil from entering. Marigold petals were also scattered on the floor under the bed to offer protection to sleepers.
MEADOWSWEET Filipendula ulmaria / Spiraea ulmaria
Meadowsweet is a member of the rose family native to Europe, temperate Asia and eastern North America. The generic name spiraea is the root word for ‘aspirin’ and meadowsweet has long been used for pain relief and the treatment of fevers. Meadowsweet was one of the three most sacred herbs of the druids (the others were watermint and vervain). The druids are believed to have made use of the plant’s anodyne qualities. It is sometimes known as Queen of the Meadows which was one of the titles of the Celtic goddess Blodeuwedd. It is also sacred to the Celtic goddesses Aine and Gwena and the Roman love goddess Venus.
OAK Quercus robur
There are more than six hundred species of oaks, all of which grow naturally only in the Northern Hemisphere. The primary power plant of the summer solstice is the oak. In ogham the oak is duir meaning ‘door’ in Gaelic. The word for door and oak, and perhaps druid, come from the same root in many European languages. The oak flowers at Midsummer and marks the door opening on one side to the waxing and on the other to the waning year. Oak was the most sacred tree of the druids and stood for a cosmic axis, and was the doorway to knowledge. Oak wood constituted the sacred fires of Midsummer. The flowers and wood are used at Midsummer.
A purple flowered stonecrop (Sedum) known as Midsummer Men. Orpine is the French word for stonecrop. The plant is also called ‘live long’ as it will live for months after it is cut, if only it is sprinkled with a little water. It was set in pots on Midsummer Eve and hung up in the house as a form of love divination. If the leaves bent to the right this signified that a lover was faithful, if to the left the true love’s heart was cold and faithless.  If two slips are stuck together in a crack and lean together, the omen is good for a relationship.
REED Phragmites communis
The reed is found growing in marshes, at water edges and in moist woodland in almost all countries of the temperate and warm regions. In myth the reed bed was seen as the entrance to the underworld from which the sun was reborn. Because reeds are filled with air- or spirit- reeds are associated with the speaking of the spirits. They are a symbol of royalty and sun gods, employed as sceptres.
ROSE Rosa sp.
The rose is a symbol both of the sun and the Goddess.
ROSEMARY Rosemarinus officinalis
Ruled by the sun and the element of fire, rosemary is a hardy perennial native to the Mediterranean region. A piece of rosemary wood cut on Midsummer morning is said to preserve youthful looks.
JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum
St. John’s wort is a hardy perennial herb native to Europe and western Asia. It is one of the many herbs that gain special powers at Midsummer, when it should be collected for magical purposes. The golden flowers are associated with the sun and the flames of the Midsummer fires. The Irish called it ‘life-renewer’ (beathnua) and the Welsh ‘the blessed one’s leaf’ (dail y fendigaid). Mediaeval herbalists reckoned it as the golden herb which ‘shines like the sun in the darkness’ on St. John’s Eve. It is a protective and counter-magic herb. The botanical name ‘hypericum‘ comes from the Greek and means ‘to protect’ or ‘over an apparition’. This refers to the belief that the plant could make evil spirits disappear. It was also called Fuga Daemonum (‘flight of demons’) because it repels evil spirits. It was believed to possess the quality of protecting the wearer against all manner of evil. Legend has it that the plant moves around to hide from those who seek its powers on at Midsummer when it is made into garlands and charms to protect the home and livestock. It had to be gathered in a particular manner:
St. John’s wort, St. John’s wort,
I deem lucky the one who will have you;
I harvest you with my right hand,
I store you away with my left hand;
Whosoever finds you in the fold of young animals
Will never want for anything.
Country folk often picked bunches of the herb and hung them in byres and stables to frighten evil spirits and keep the devil away. It was tossed onto the baal or hearth fires and allowed to burn to protect the home against lightning and storms. St. John’s wort gathered at noon on Midsummer Day was reputed to be effective against several illnesses. It was also believed that the dew collected from the plant on Midsummer morning would preserve the eyes from disease, while the roots gathered at midnight on St. Johns Eve would drive the devil and evil sorcerers away.
Nothing evokes the warm summer sun as much as the giant yellow face of the sunflower, which moves during the day to follow the path of the sun across the sky. Magically it represents strength, courage and action. The petals may be dried and used in incenses during sun rituals or during meditations and exercises designed to increase your confidence and self-image, or to determine a course of positive action.
VERVAIN Verbena officinalis
Vervain is a hardy herbaceous perennial native to Britain, Europe, North Africa and West Asia. For magical purposes vervain should be gathered at the summer solstice. Gather enough for one year. Any vervain that has been left over from last year’s gathering should be cast onto the Midsummer bonfire.
Photograph Paul Mason
 John Stow, Survey, 1598
 Brewer, E. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Cassell and Co., London, 1885
 Alexander Carmichael, Carmina Gadelica, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1928